in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. When in 1935 the Confessing Church synod protested the Nazi policy on religion, 700 of their pastors were arrested. By January 1939, unemployment was down to 301,800 and it dropped to only 77,500 by September. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended, partly because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. Hitler and the nsdap prepared to take advantage of the emergency to gain support for their party. In addition to Hitler's stated purpose of acquiring Lebensraum, this large-scale offensivecodenamed Operation Barbarossa was intended to destroy the Soviet Union and seize its natural resources for subsequent aggression against the Western powers. Among soldiers and party personnel, suicide was often deemed an honourable and heroic alternative to surrender. With the outbreak of World War II, the SS Einsatzgruppen units followed the army into Poland and the Soviet Union, where from 1941 to 1945 they killed more than two million people, including.3 million Jews. Influenced by the Völkisch movement, the regime was against cultural modernism and supported the development of an extensive military at the expense of intellectualism. Medical experiments, many of them pseudoscientific, were performed on concentration camp inmates beginning in 1941. The law also forbade the employment of German women under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households. Led by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler from 1929, the SS had over a quarter million members by 1938. The Nazis opposed the feminist movement, claiming that it was the creation of Jewish intellectuals, instead advocating a patriarchal society in which the German woman would recognise that her "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home". In 1943 alone, 9,000,000 tons of cereals, 2,000,000 tonnes (2,000,000 long tons; 2,200,000 short tons) of fodder, 3,000,000 tonnes (3,000,000 long tons; 3,300,000 short tons) of potatoes, and 662,000 tonnes (652,000 long tons; 730,000 short tons) of meats were sent back to Germany. The most notorious doctor to perform medical experiments was SS- Hauptsturmführer.