journals are: SCR (The Supreme Court Reports SCC (Supreme Court Cases AIR (All India Reporter scale, etc. 340 In 1870, the First Vatican Council affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements. 302 Western Christianity, particularly through its monasteries, was a major factor in preserving classical civilisation, with its art (see Illuminated manuscript ) and literacy. 222 Church teachings about sexuality have become an issue of increasing controversy, especially after the close of the Second Vatican Council, due to changing cultural attitudes in the Western world described as the sexual revolution. He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he been able, he would have done. 225 The church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe. M: "The parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him. Verma, former Chief Justice of India (The Judiciary: 'Honesty Matters. Peters, "A Catechist's Introduction to Canon Law", fo, accessed June Manual of Canon Law,.